炼钢 - 小众知识

炼钢

2013年01月27日 14:18:05 苏内容
  标签: 炼钢
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把炼钢用生铁放到炼钢炉内按一定工艺熔炼,即得到钢。钢的产品有钢锭、连铸坯和直接铸成各种钢铸件等。通常所讲的钢,一般是指轧制成各种钢材的钢。钢属于黑色金属但钢不完全等于黑色金属。
炼钢是指控制碳含量(一般小于2%),消除P、S、O、N等有害元素,保留或增加Si、Mn、Ni、Cr等有益元素并调整元素之间的比例,获得最佳性能


加料

加料:向电炉或转炉内加入铁水或废钢等原材料的操作,是炼钢操作的第一步。
造渣

造渣:调整钢、铁生产中熔渣成分、碱度和粘度及其反应能力的操作。目的是通过
钢铁高炉
钢铁高炉
渣——金属反应炼出具有所要求成分和温度的金属。例如氧气顶吹转炉造渣和吹氧操作是为了生成有足够流动性和碱度的熔渣,能够向金属液面中传递足够的氧,以便把硫、磷降到计划钢种的上限以下,并使吹氧时喷溅和溢渣的量减至最小。
出渣

出渣:电弧炉炼钢时根据不同冶炼条件和目的在冶炼过程中所采取的放渣或扒渣操作。如用单渣法冶炼时,氧化末期须扒氧化渣;用双渣法造还原渣时,原来的氧化渣必须彻底放出,以防回磷等。
熔池搅拌

熔池搅拌:向金属熔池供应能量,使金属液和熔渣产生运动,以改善冶金反应的动力学条件。熔池搅拌可藉助于气体、机械、电磁感应等方法来实现。
脱磷

减少钢液中含磷量的化学反应。磷是钢中有害杂质之一。含磷较多的钢,在室温或更低的温度下使用时,容易脆裂,称为“冷脆”。钢中含碳越高,磷引起的脆性越严重。一般普通钢中规定含磷量不超过 0.045%,优质钢要求含磷更少。生铁中的磷,主要来自铁矿石中的磷酸盐。氧化磷和氧化铁的热力学稳定性相近。在高炉的还原条件下,炉料中的磷几乎全部被还原并溶入铁水。如选矿不能除去磷的化合物,脱磷就只能在(高)炉外或碱性炼钢炉中进行。
铁中脱磷问题的认识和解决,在钢铁生产发展史上具有特殊的重要意义。钢的大规模工业生产开始于1856年贝塞麦(H.Bessemer)发明的酸性转炉炼钢法。但酸性转炉炼钢不能脱磷;而含磷低的铁矿石又很少,严重地阻碍了钢生产的发展。1879年托马斯(S.Thomas)发明了能处理高磷铁水的碱性转炉炼钢法,碱性炉渣的脱磷原理接着被推广到平炉炼钢中去,使大量含磷铁矿石得以用于生产钢铁,对现代钢铁工业的发展作出了重大的贡献。
碱性渣的脱磷作用 脱磷反应是在炉渣与含磷铁水的界面上进行的。钢液中的磷 【P】和氧 【O】结合成气态P2O5的反应
电炉底吹

电炉底吹:通过置于炉底的喷嘴将N2、Ar、CO2、CO、CH4、O2等气体根据工艺要求吹入炉内熔池以达到加速熔化,促进冶金反应过程的目的。采用底吹工艺可缩短冶炼时间,降低电耗,改善脱磷、脱硫操作,提高钢中残锰量,提高金属和合金收得率。并能使钢水成分、温度更均匀,从而改善钢质量,降低成本,提高生产率。
熔化期

熔化期:炼钢的熔化期主要是对平炉和电炉炼钢而言。电弧炉炼钢从通电开始到炉
钢花伴我炼钢忙
钢花伴我炼钢忙
料全部熔清为止、平炉炼钢从兑完铁水到炉料全部化完为止都称熔化期。熔化期的任务是尽快将炉料熔化及升温,并造好熔化期的炉渣。
氧化期

氧化期和脱碳期:普通功率电弧炉炼钢的氧化期,通常指炉料溶清、取样分析到扒完氧化渣这一工艺阶段。也有认为是从吹氧或加矿脱碳开始的。氧化期的主要任务是氧化钢液中的碳、磷;去除气体及夹杂物;使钢液均匀加热升温。脱碳是氧化期的一项重要操作工艺。为了保证钢的纯净度,要求脱碳量大于0.2%左右。随着炉外精炼技术的发展,电弧炉的氧化精炼大多移到钢包或精炼炉中进行。
“炼钢工人”雨花石
“炼钢工人”雨花石
精炼期

精炼期:炼钢过程通过造渣和其他方法把对钢的质量有害的一些元素和化合物,经化学反应选入气相或排、浮入渣中,使之从钢液中排除的工艺操作期。
连铸机出坯
连铸机出坯
还原期

还原期:普通功率电弧炉炼钢操作中,通常把氧化末期扒渣完毕到出钢这段时间称为还原期。其主要任务是造还原渣进行扩散、脱氧、脱硫、控制化学成分和调整温度。高功率和超功率电弧炉炼钢操作已取消还原期。
炉外精炼

炉外精炼:将炼钢炉(转炉、电炉等)中初炼过的钢液移到另一个容器中进行精炼的炼钢过程,也叫二次冶金。炼钢过程因此分为初炼和精炼两步进行。初炼:炉料在氧化性气氛的炉内进行熔化、脱磷、脱碳和主合金化。精炼:将初炼的钢液在真空、惰性气体或还原性气氛的容器中进行脱气、脱氧、脱硫,去除夹杂物和进行成分微调等。将炼钢分两步进行的好处是:可提高钢的质量,
炼钢车间
炼钢车间
缩短冶炼时间,简化工艺过程并降低生产成本。炉外精炼的种类很多,大致可分为常压下炉外精炼和真空下炉外精炼两类。按处理方式的不同,又可分为钢包处理型炉外精炼及钢包精炼型炉外精炼等。
钢液搅拌

钢液搅拌:炉外精炼过程中对钢液进行的搅拌。它使钢液成分和温度均匀化,并能促进冶金反应。多数冶金反应过程是相界面反应,反应物和生成物的扩散速度是这些反应的限制性环节。钢液在静止状态下,其冶金反应速度很慢,如电炉中静止的钢液脱硫需30~60分钟;而在炉精炼中采取搅拌钢液的办法脱硫只需3~5分钟。钢液在静止状态下,夹杂物上浮除去,排除速度较慢;搅拌钢液时,夹杂物的除去速度按指数规律递增,并与搅拌强度、类型和夹杂物的特性、浓度有关。
钢包喂丝

钢包喂丝:通过喂丝机向钢包内喂入用铁皮包裹的脱氧、脱硫及微调成分的粉剂,如Ca-Si粉、或直接喂入铝线、碳线等对钢水进行深脱硫、钙处理以及微调钢中碳和铝等成分的方法。它还具有清洁钢水、改善非金属夹杂物形态的功能。
事后处理编辑
钢包处理

钢包处理:钢包处理型炉外精炼的简称。其特点是精炼时间短(约10~30分钟),
转炉炼钢
转炉炼钢
精炼任务单一,没有补偿钢水温度降低的加热装置,工艺操作简单,设备投资少。它有钢水脱气、脱硫、成分控制和改变夹杂物形态等装置。如真空循环脱气法(RH、DH),钢包真空吹氩法(Gazid),钢包喷粉处理法(IJ、TN、SL)等均属此类。
钢包精炼

钢包精炼:钢包精炼型炉外精炼的简称。其特点是比钢包处理的精炼时间长(约60~180分钟),具有多种精炼功能,有补偿钢水温度降低的加热装置,适于各类高合金钢和特殊性能钢种(如超纯钢种)的精炼。真空吹氧脱碳法(VOD)、真空电弧加热脱气法(VAD)、钢包精炼法(ASEA-SKF)、封闭式吹氩成分微调法(CAS)等,均属此类;与此类似的还有氩氧脱碳法(AOD)。
气体处理

惰性气体处理:向钢液中吹入惰性气体Ar,这种气体本身不参与冶金反应,但从钢水中上升的每个小气泡都相当于一个“小真空室”(气泡中H2、N2、CO的分压接近于零),具有“气洗”作用。炉外精炼法生产不锈钢的原理,就是应用不同的CO分压下碳铬和温度之间的平衡关系。用惰性气体加氧进行精炼脱碳,可以降低碳氧反应中CO分压,在较低温度的条件下,碳含量降低而铬不被氧化。
预合金化

预合金化:向钢液加入一种或几种合金元素,使其达到成品钢成分规格要求的操作过程称为合金化。多数情况下脱氧和合金化是同时进行的,加入钢中的脱氧剂一部分消耗于钢的脱氧,转化为脱氧产物排出;另一部则为钢水所吸收,起合金化作用。在脱氧操作未全部完成前,与脱氧剂同时加入的合金被钢水吸收所起到的合金化作用称为预合金化。
成分控制

成分控制:保证成品钢成分全部符合标准要求的操作。成分控制贯穿于从配料到出钢的各个环节,但重点是合金化时对合金元素成分的控制。对优质钢往往要求把成分精确地控制在一个狭窄的范围内;一般在不影响钢性能的前提下,按中、下限控制。
增硅

增硅:吹炼终点时,钢液中含硅量极低。为达到各钢号对硅含量的要求,必须以合金料形式加入一定量的硅。它除了用作脱氧剂消耗部分外,还使钢液中的硅增加。增硅量要经过准确计算,不可超过吹炼钢种所允许的范围。
终点控制

终点控制:氧气转炉炼钢吹炼终点(吹氧结束)时使金属的化学成分和温度同时达到计划钢种出钢要求而进行的控制。终点控制有增碳法和拉碳法两种方法。
出钢

出钢:钢液的温度和成分达到所炼钢种的规定要求时将钢水放出的操作。出钢时要注意防止熔渣流入钢包。用于调整钢水温度、成分和脱氧用的添加剂在出钢过程中加入钢包或出钢流中也叫脱氧合金化。

炼钢历史
中国是世界上最早生产钢的国家之一。考古工作者曾经在湖南长沙杨家山春秋晚期的墓葬中发掘出一把铜格“铁剑”,通过金相检验,结果证明是钢制的。这是迄今为止我们见到的中国最早的钢制实物。它说明从春秋晚期起中国就有炼钢生产了,炼钢生产在中国已有2500多年的历史。

炼钢技术
1.炼钢安全生产的主要特点
铁水中含有C、S、P等杂质,影响铁的强度和脆性等,需要对铁水进行再冶炼,以去除上述杂质,并加入Si、Mn等,调整其成分。对铁水进行重新冶炼以调整其成分的过程叫作炼钢。
炼钢的主要原料是含炭较高的铁水或生铁以及废钢铁。为了去除铁水中的杂质,还需要向铁水中加入氧化剂、脱氧剂和造渣材料,以及铁合金等材料,以调整钢的成分。含炭较高的铁水或生铁加入炼钢炉以后,经过供氧吹炼、加矿石、脱炭等工序,将铁水中的杂质氧化除去,最后加入合金,进行合金化,便得到钢水。炼钢炉有平炉、转炉和电炉3种,平炉炼钢法因能耗高、作业环境差已逐步淘汰。转炉和平炉炼钢是先将铁水装入混铁炉预热,将废钢加入转炉或平炉内,然后将混铁炉内的高温铁水用混铁车兑入转炉或平炉,进行融化与提温,当温度合适后,进入氧化期。电炉炼钢是在电炉炉钢内全部加入冷废钢,经过长时间的熔化与提温,再进入氧化期。
(1)融化过程。铁水及废钢中含有C、Mn、Si、P、S等杂质,在低温融化过程中,C、Si、P、S被氧化,即使单质态的杂质变为化合态的杂质,以利于后期进一步去除杂质。氧来源于炉料中的铁锈(成分为Fe2O3·2H2O)、氧化铁皮、加入的铁矿石以及空气中的氧和吹氧。各种杂质的氧化过程是在炉渣与钢液的界面之间进行的。
(2)氧化过程。氧化过程是在高温下进行的脱炭、去磷、去气、去杂质反应。
(3)脱氧、脱硫与出钢。氧化末期,钢中含有大量过剩的氧,通过向钢液中加入块状或粉状铁合金或多元素合金来去除钢液中过剩的氧,产生的有害气体CO随炉气排出,产生的炉渣可进一步脱硫,即在最后的出钢过程中,渣、钢强烈混合冲洗,增加脱硫反应。
(4)炉外精炼。从炼钢炉中冶炼出来的钢水含有少量的气体及杂质,一般是将钢水注入精炼包中,进行吹氩、脱气、钢包精炼等工序,得到较纯净的钢质。
(5)浇铸。从炼钢炉或精炼炉中出来的纯净的钢水,当其温度合适、化学成分调整合适以后,即可出钢。钢水经过钢水包脱入钢锭模或连续铸钢机内,即得到钢锭或连铸坯。
浇注分为模铸和连铸两种方式。模铸又分为上铸法和下铸法两种。上铸法是将钢水从钢水包通过铸模的上口直接注入模内形成钢锭。下注法是将钢水包中的钢水浇人中注管、流钢砖,钢水从钢锭模的下口进人模内。钢水在模内凝固即得到钢锭。钢锭经过脱保温帽送入轧钢厂的均热炉内加热,然后将钢锭模等运回炼钢厂进行整模工作。
连铸是将钢水从钢水包浇入中间包,然后再浇入洁净器中。钢液通过激冷后由拉坯机按一定速度拉出结晶器,经过二次冷却及强迫冷却,待全部冷却后,切割成一定尺寸的连铸坯,最后送往轧钢车间。
2.炼钢生产的主要安全技术
(1)弯头或变径管燃爆事故的预防。氧枪上部的氧管弯道或变径管由于流速大,局部阻力损失大,如管内有渣或脱脂不干净时,容易诱发高纯、高压、高速氧气燃爆。应通过改善设计、防止急弯、减慢流速、定期吹管、清扫过滤器、完善脱脂等手段来避免事故的发生。
(2)回火燃爆事故的防治。低压用氧导致氧管负压、氧枪喷孔堵塞,都易由高温熔池产生的燃气倒罐回火,发生燃爆事故。因此,应严密监视氧压。多个炉子用氧时,不要抢着用氧,以免造成管道回火。
(3)汽阻爆炸事故的预防。因操作失误造成氧枪回水不通,氧枪积水在熔池高温中汽化,阻止高压水进入。当氧枪内的蒸气压力高于枪壁强度极限时变发生爆炸。
3、废钢与拆炉爆破安全技术
(1)爆破可能出现的危害:爆炸地震波;爆炸冲击波;碎片和飞块的危害;噪声。
(2)安全对策:一是重型废钢爆破。废钢必须在地下爆破坑内进行,爆破坑强度要大,并有泄压孔,泄压孔周围要设立柱挡墙;二是拆炉爆破,限制装药量,控制爆破能量;三是采取必要的防治措施。
4、钢、铁、渣灼伤防护技术
铁、钢、渣液的温度很高,热辐射很强,又易于喷溅,加上设备及环境的温度很高,极易发生灼伤事故。
(1)灼伤及其发生的原因:设备遗漏,如炼钢炉、钢水罐、铁水罐、混铁炉等满溢;铁、钢、渣液遇水发生的物理化学爆炸及二次爆炸;过热蒸汽管线穿漏或裸露;改变平炉炉膛的火焰和废气方向时喷出热气或火焰;违反操作规程。
(2)安全对策:定期检查、检修炼钢炉、钢水罐、铁水罐、混铁炉等设备;改善安全技术规程,并严格执行;搞好个人防护;容易漏气的法兰、阀门要定期更换。
5、炼钢厂起重运输作业安全技术
炼钢过程中所需要的原材料、半成品、成品都需要起重设备和机车进行运输,运输过程中有很多危险因素。
(1)存在的危险:起吊物坠落伤人;起吊物相互碰撞;铁水和钢水倾翻伤人;车辆撞人。
(2)安全对策:厂房设计时考虑足够的空间;革新设备,加强维护;提高工人的操作水平;严格遵守安全生产规程。
6、炼钢生产事故预防措施和技术
(1)炼钢厂房的安全要求。应考虑炼钢厂房的结构能够承受高温辐射;具有足够的强度和刚度,能承受钢水包、铁水包、钢锭和钢坯等载荷和碰撞而不会变形;有宽敞的作业环境,通风采光良好,有利于散热和排放烟气,要充分考虑人员作业时的安全要求。
(2)防爆安全措施。钢水、铁水、钢渣以及炼钢炉炉底的熔渣都是高温熔融物,与水接触就会发生爆炸。当1 kg水完全变成蒸汽后,其体积要增大约1500倍,破坏力极大。炼钢厂因为熔融物遇水爆炸的情况主要有:转炉、平炉氧枪,转炉的烟罩,连铸机的结晶器的高、中压冷却水大漏,穿透熔融物而爆炸;炼钢炉、精炼炉、连铸结晶器的水冷件因为回水堵塞,造成继续受热而引起爆炸;炼钢炉、钢水罐、铁水罐、中间罐、渣罐漏钢、漏渣及倾翻时发生爆炸;往潮湿的钢水罐、铁水罐、中间罐、渣罐中盛装钢水、铁水、液渣时发生爆炸;向有潮湿废物及积水的罐坑、渣坑中放热罐、放渣、翻渣时引起的爆炸;向炼钢炉内加入潮湿料时引起的爆炸;铸钢系统漏钢与潮湿地面接触发生爆炸。防止熔融物遇水爆炸的主要措施是,对冷却水系统要保证安全供水,水质要净化,不得泄漏;物料、容器、作业场所必须干燥。
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